Produção Científica

**Artigo em Revista**

Modelling of mechanical wave propagationThe numerical modeling of mechanical waves is currently a fundamental tool for the study and investigation of their propagation in media with heterogeneous physical properties and/or complex geometry, as, in these cases, analytical methods are usually not applicable. These techniques are used in geophysics (geophysical interpretation, subsoil imaging, development of new methods of exploration), seismology (study of earthquakes, regional and global seismology, accurate calculation of synthetic seismograms), in the development of new methods for ultrasonic diagnostics in materials science (non-destructive methods) and medicine (acoustic tomography). In this paper we present a review of numerical methods that have been developed and are currently used. In particular we review the key concepts and pioneering ideas behind finite-difference methods, pseudospectral methods, finite-volume methods, Galerkin continuous and discontinuous finite-element methods (classical or based on spectral interpolation), and still others such as physics-compatible, and multiscale methods. We focus on their formulations in time domain along with the main temporal discretization schemes. We present the theory and implementation for some of these methods. Moreover, their computational characteristics are evaluated in order to aid the choice of the method for each practical situation. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Multiphase flow mobility impact on oil reservoir recovery: An open-source simulationThis work uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate the two-phase flow (oil and water) through a reservoir represented by a sandbox model. We investigated the influence in the flows of water having higher and lower mobilities than oil. To accomplish this, we also developed a dedicated solver, with the appropriated equations and representative models implemented in the open-source CFD OpenFOAM platform. In this solver, the black-oil model represented the oil. The results show that the Buckley–Leverett water-flood equation is a good approach for the three-dimensional flow. We observe that the water wall front is mixed to some extent with the oil and evolves obeying an exponential law. Water with mobility lower than oil is not common. However, in this case, the oil recovery is improved and the amount of injected water is reduced. The results comparing different mobilities show that a careful economic assessment should be performed before the field development. We have shown that the low water mobility can increase, as in this studied example, the water front saturation from 0.57 to 0.73, giving a substantial improvement in the oil recovery. The reservoir simulation can provide all process information needed to perform an economical assessment in an oil field exploration. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Geometrical influence of the source/drains configuration on the flow interactions in a sandbox model: A three-dimensional OpenFOAM simulationThis paper explores the interaction of di®erent °ow paths in a porous medium by observing the e®ect of having more than one drain in a simple model domain with a single source. The work is based on three-dimensional numerical simulations of the °ow of injected water in a sandbox domain with porous volume completely ¯lled by water and oil. The calculation uses the OpenFOAM library to solve Darcy's equations for the dynamics of a two-phase °ow: water as the wetting, oil as the nonwetting °uid. We observe the interactions of °ows in di®erent paths under changes of number of drains and their relative positions. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Can euler deconvolution outline three‐dimensional magnetic sources?Severe limitations of the standard Euler deconvolution (ED) to outline source shapes have been pointed out. However, ED has been widely employed on field data to outline interfaces, as faults and thrust zones. We investigate the limitations of the 3D ED‐derived estimates of source dip and volume with the use of reduced‐to‐the‐pole synthetic and field anomalies. The synthetic anomalies are generated by two types of source bodies: 1) uniformly magnetized prisms, presenting either smooth or rough interfaces, and 2) bodies presenting smooth delimiting interfaces but strong internal variation of magnetization intensity. The dip of the first type of body might be estimated from the ED solution cluster if the ratio between the depth to the top and vertical extent is relatively high (>1/4). For the second type of body, besides dip, the source volume can be approximately delimited from the solution cluster envelope, regardless of the referred ratio. We apply ED to two field anomalies which are caused by a curved‐shape thrust zone and by a banded iron formation. These anomalies are chosen because they share characteristics with the two types of synthetic bodies. For the thrust zone, the obtained ED solutions show spatial distribution allowing to estimate a source dip that is consistent with the surface geology data, even if the above mentioned ratio is much less than 1/4. Thus, there are other factors, like a heterogeneous magnetization, which might be controlling the vertical spreading of the ED solutions in the thrust zone. On the other hand, for the iron‐ore formation, the solution cluster spreads out occupying a volume, in accordance with the results obtained with the synthetic sources having internal variation of magnetization intensity. As conclusion, although ED‐derived solutions cannot offer accurate estimates of source shapes, they might provide a sufficient degree of reliability in the initial estimates of the source dip and volume, which may be useful in a later phase of more accurate modeling. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Enhancing stratigraphic, structural and dissolution features in GPR images of carbonate karst through data processingObtaining high‐quality ground penetrating radar (GPR) images in karst is difficult because materials resulting from the weathering of carbonate rocks might be electrically conductive. As a consequence, penetration depth and signal resolution might be greatly reduced due to attenuation. In addition, fractures and faults might cause a significant amount of electromagnetic wave scattering. We present a 2D data processing flow which allows improving the quality of GPR images in carbonate karst. The processing flow is composed of the following steps: obtaining a zero‐offset section by removing the direct wave, low‐frequency noise removal, geometrical spreading and exponential gain compensation, spectral balancing, Kirchhoff migration, bandpass filtering, amplitude‐volume enhancement, and topographic correction. For a 200‐MHz dataset, we present in detail each step of the processing flow, exemplifying how to parameterize every step. Spectral balancing is of key importance because it can approximately replenish the high‐frequency content lost due to propagation effects. In this step, we recommend to shift the centroid frequency as much as possible to high‐frequency values, even exceeding the nominal value of the antenna center frequency, but still looking for a band‐limited spectrum as the goal. Despite the difficulty of migrating GPR data, we show that migration (even assuming a constant velocity) might enhance the lateral continuity of the reflection events and allows identification of discontinuities such as faults and fractures. If imaged in a better way, these structures can have special importance as they are often the boundaries of dissolution features. Obtaining images based on amplitude‐volume enhancement techniques allows to better visualize karst voids and deep‐rooted discontinuities because these features are often associated with low‐amplitude zones, which are highlighted in such images. Due to this processing flow, stratigraphic, structural and dissolution features can be enhanced, allowing the interpreter to establish spatial and genetic associations among these elements to obtain a better understanding of the karst formation process. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Estimation of the seismic wavelet through homomorphic deconvolution and well log data: application on well-to-seismic tie procedureWavelet estimation and well-tie procedures are important tasks in seismic processing and interpretation. Deconvolutional statistical methods to estimate the proper wavelet, in general, are based on the assumptions of the classical convolutional model, which implies a random process reflectivity and a minimum-phase wavelet. The homomorphic deconvolution, however, does not take these premises into account. In this work, we propose an approach to estimate the seismic wavelet using the advantages of the homomorphic deconvolution and the deterministic estimation of the wavelet, which uses both seismic and well log data. The feasibility of this approach is verified on well-to-seismic tie from a real data set from Viking Graben Field, North Sea, Norway. The results show that the wavelet estimated through this methodology produced a higher quality well tie when compared to methods of estimation of the wavelet that consider the classical assumptions of the convolutional model. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Fast estimation of prestack Common Reflection Surface parameters.We present a method for fast estimation of finite offset common reflection surface parameters. Firstly, the derivatives with respect to offset are derived from the velocity guide. Secondly, we apply structure tensors to extract the derivatives with respect to midpoint from stacked common offset sections. Finally, the mixed derivative is estimated using a one‐parametric semblance search. The proposed method is compared to the global five‐parametric semblance search and the pragmatic sequential two‐parametric semblance search on one synthetic and one real data set. The experiments show that the proposed method is more robust against noise than the pragmatic search and have comparable robustness with the global search. The proposed method smoothes parameter estimates in a local window, and the window size is set to give the best trade‐off between detail and robustness. Since the proposed method is dependent on a velocity guide, the quality of the other parameter estimates may be influenced by any inaccuracies in the guide. The main advantage of the proposed method is the computational efficiency. When compared with a gridded implementation of the semblance search, the proposed method is 10 and 400 times faster than the pragmatic and global search. Alternative search strategies significantly reduce the computational cost of the global search. However, since more than 99% of the computational cost of the proposed method comes from the semblance search to estimate the mixed derivative, it is expected that such techniques also reduce the computational cost for the proposed method. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Stretch-free generalized normal moveout correction.The effective application of normal moveout correction processes mainly depends on four factors: the chosen traveltime approximation, the stretching associated with the given traveltime, crossing events and phase changes, the last two being inherent to the seismic data. In this context, we conduct a quantitative analysis on stretching considering a general traveltime expression depending on half‐offset and midpoint coordinates. Through this analysis, we propose a mathematically proven procedure to eliminate stretching, which can be applied to any traveltime approximation. The proposed method is applied to synthetic and real data sets, considering different traveltime approximations and achieved complete elimination of stretching. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Gravity and Magnetic Modeling Sergipano Belt, Brazil: Tectonic Control and Crustal Thickness of the Basement Adjacent to the Sergipe-Alagoas BasinThis work used gravimetric and magnetic data to investigate the Sergipano Belt that occupies the Southern Borborema Province, Brazil. The main objective was to interpret tectonic relationships between the geological domains, crustal lateral variation of the physical properties and the behavior of the Moho relief. The gravity and magnetic inversion was performed to determine the physical properties magnetic susceptibility and density contrast to delineate the geometry of the true source. The regional gravity anomaly was used to obtain solutions depth of the interface crust-mantle in which it was necessary to know the initial model of the crustal thickness and density contrast. The geophysical measures was used to delineate the initially crustal thickness and compared to the results based on a compilation of data published in the literature mainly derived from seismic database such as deep seismic refraction experiments. These magnetic sources have signals with different amplitudes that originate from different geometric sources, situated at different depths and with different magnetic properties. As to the crustal thickness results, we found that the southern region of the Sergipano Belt has a crustal (34-35 km) and mantle uplift, mainly in the Girau do Ponciano Dome. The Rio Coruripe domain as well as the PEAL Terrain has a thicker crust (38-40 km), with magnetic and gravimetric sources that reach from 15 to 20 km deep marked in sections. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Density log correction for borehole effects and its impact on well-to-seismic tie: Application on a North Sea data setReservoir characterization requires accurate elastic logs. It is necessary to guarantee that the logging tool is stable during the drilling process to avoid compromising the measurements of the physical properties in the formation in the vicinity of the well. Irregularities along the borehole may happen, especially if the drilling device is passing through unconsolidated formations. This affects the signals recorded by the logging tool, and the measurements may be more impacted by the drilling mud than by the formation. The caliper log indicates the change in the diameter of the borehole with depth and can be used as an indicator of the quality of other logs whose data have been degraded by the enlargement or shrinkage of the borehole wall. Damaged well-log data, particularly density and velocity profiles, affect the quality and accuracy of the well-to-seismic tie. To investigate the effects of borehole enlargement on the well-to-seismic tie, an analysis of density log correction was performed. This approach uses Doll’s geometric factor to correct the density log for wellbore enlargement using the caliper readings. Because the wavelet is an important factor on the well tie, we tested our methodology with statistical and deterministic wavelet estimations. For both cases, the results using the real data set from the Viking Graben field — North Sea indicated up to a 7% improvement on the correlation between the real and synthetic seismic traces for well-to-seismic tie when the density correction was made. |