Produção Científica



Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

Adding Prior Information in FWI through Relative Entropy
Full waveform inversion is an advantageous technique for obtaining high-resolution subsurface information. In the petroleum industry, mainly in reservoir characterisation, it is common to use information from wells as previous information to decrease the ambiguity of the obtained
results. For this, we propose adding a relative entropy term to the formalism of the full waveform inversion. In this context, entropy will be just a nomenclature for regularisation and will have the role of helping the converge to the global minimum. The application of entropy in inverse problems usually involves formulating the problem, so that it is possible to use statistical concepts. To avoid this step, we propose a deterministic application to the full waveform inversion. We will
discuss some aspects of relative entropy and show three different ways of using them to add prior information through entropy in the inverse problem. We use a dynamic weighting scheme to add prior information through entropy. The idea is that the prior information can help to find the path of the global minimum at the beginning of the inversion process. In all cases, the prior information
can be incorporated very quickly into the full waveform inversion and lead the inversion to the desired solution. When we include the logarithmic weighting that constitutes entropy to the inverse problem, we will suppress the low-intensity ripples and sharpen the point events. Thus, the addition of entropy relative to full waveform inversion can provide a result with better resolution. In regions
where salt is present in the BP 2004 model, we obtained a significant improvement by adding prior information through the relative entropy for synthetic data. We will show that the prior information added through entropy in full-waveform inversion formalism will prove to be a way to avoid local minimums.

Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

Structural and sedimentary discontinuities control the generation of karst dissolution cavities in a carbonate sequence, Potiguar Basin, Brazil
Epigenetic karstic systems in carbonate rocks commonly result from progressive dissolution by acidic meteoric
waters over thousands to millions of years. The generation of secondary porosity and permeability improvement
due to dissolution in carbonate reservoirs of geofluids (e.g., groundwater, hydrocarbons, and CO2) can profoundly impact reservoir storage capacity and subsurface fluid flow. This study investigates the control of structural discontinuities such as stylolites, fractures, and primary sedimentary discontinuities on the generation of multiscale karst dissolution cavities by epigenetic fluid percolation in a Late Cretaceous carbonate sequence (Jandaíra Formation) in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil. The study relies on micro- and macroscale nalyses such as stratigraphic logs, field structural investigations, rock strength data collected in the field (Schmidt hammer), microtomographic and drone images, thin section analyses, porosity and permeability laboratory measurements. The results show that bed-perpendicular stratabound and non-stratabound stylolites and fractures can be enlarged due to meteoric water percolation until they merge and form a single channel system that crosscuts all sedimentary multilayers. Bed-parallel stylolites are ubiquitous in carbonate sequences overprinting bed interfaces and layers. Where not dissolved, bed-parallel stylolites have low porosity and permeability and thus can act as barriers to vertical fluid flow. Where dissolved, such stylolites can contribute to horizontal fluid flow and form channel porosity. The results of this study led to a formulation of a conceptual model of rock dissolution along structural and sedimentary discontinuities that affects carbonate rock successions in the subsurface.

Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

Image-guided ray tracing and its applications
Eikonal solvers have important applications in seismic data
processing and inversion, the so-called image-guided methods. To this day, in image-guided applications, the solution of the eikonal equation is implemented using partial-differential-equation solvers, such as fast-marching or fast-sweeping methods. We have found that alternatively, one can numerically integrate the dynamic Hamiltonian system defined by the image-guided eikonal equation and reconstruct the solution with image-guided
rays. We evaluate interesting applications of image-guided ray tracing to seismic data processing, demonstrating the use of the resulting rays in image-guided interpolation and smoothing, well-log interpolation, image flattening, and residual-moveout picking. Some of these applications make use of properties of the ray-tracing system that are not directly obtained by eikonal solvers, such as ray position, ray density, wavefront curvature, and ray curvature. These ray properties open space for a different set of applications of the image-guided eikonal equation, beyond the original motivation of accelerating the construction
of minimum distance tables. We stress that image-guided ray
tracing is an embarrassingly parallel problem that makes its implementation highly efficient on massively parallel platforms. Image-guided ray tracing is advantageous for most applications involving the tracking of seismic events and imaging-guided interpolation. Our numerical experiments using synthetic and real data sets indicate the efficiency and robustness of image-guided rays for the selected applications.

Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

Computational cost comparison between nodal and vector finite elements in the modeling of controlled source electromagnetic data using a direct solver
The Finite Element method can be implemented to model geophysical electromagnetic data using one of two methodologies called Nodal and Vector Finite Elements. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches, emphasizing memory usage and processing time, when simulating Marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) data in three-dimensional models. The study is carried out using unstructured meshes and a direct solver. Computational cost information from both methodologies are gathered from four different 3D models, each emphasizing a different aspect of the problem. The results indicate that the Vector Finite Element methodology requires less memory and processing time to calculate the same data using the
same mesh. Although the nodal method generates a smaller linear system than the vector method, the vector coefficient matrix is significantly more sparse than the nodal one. The greater sparsity makes the vector
approach more computationally efficient, requiring less memory and running in less time than the nodal method to generate results with the same level of accuracy.

Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

Anisotropic Born scattering for the qP scalar wavefield using a low-rank symbol approximation
We have developed a procedure to derive low-rank evolution
operators in the mixed space-wavenumber domain for modeling
the qP Born-scattered wavefield at perturbations of an anisotropic medium under the pseudoacoustic approximation. To approximate the full wavefield, this scattered field is then added to the reference wavefield obtained with the corresponding lowrank evolution operator in the background medium. Being built upon a Hamiltonian formulation using the dispersion relation for qP-waves, this procedure avoids pseudo-S-wave artifacts and provides a unified approach for linearizing anisotropic pseudoacoustic evolution operators. Therefore, it is immediately applicable to any arbitrary class of anisotropy. As an additional
asset, the scattering operators explicitly contain the sensitivity kernels of the Born-scattered wavefield with respect to the anisotropic medium parameters. This enables direct access to important information such as its offset dependence or directional characteristics as a function of the individual parameter perturbations. For our numerical tests, we specify the operators for a mildly anisotropic tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) medium. We validate our implementation in a simple model with weak contrasts and simulate reflection data in the BP TTI model to indicate that the procedure works in a more realistic scenario.
The Born-scattering results indicate that our procedure is applicable to strongly heterogeneous anisotropic media. Moreover, we use the analytical capabilities of the kernels by means of sensitivity tests to demonstrate that using two different medium parameterizations leads to different results. The mathematical formulation of the method is such that it allows for an immediate application to least-squares migration in pseudoacoustic anisotropic media.

Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

The Generalized Cross Validation Method for the Selection of Regularization Parameter in Geophysical Diffraction Tomography
Inverse problems are usually ill-posed in such a way that it is necessary to use some method to reduce their deficiencies. For this purpose, we use the regularization by derivative matrices, known as Tikhonov regularization. There is a crucial problem in regularization, which is the selection of the regularization parameter λ. In this work, we use generalized cross validation (GCV) as a tool for the selection of λ. GCV is used here for an application in geophysical diffraction tomography, where the objective is to obtain the 2-D velocity distribution from the measured values of the scattered acoustic field. The results are compared to those obtained using L-curve, and also ϴ-curve, which is an extension of L-curve. We present several simulation results with synthetic data, and in general the results using GCV are equal or eventually better than the other two approaches.

Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

Signal time–frequency representation and decomposition using partial fractions
The Z-transform of a complex time signal (or the analytic signal of a real signal) is equal to the Z-transform of a prediction error divided by the Z-transform of the
rediction error operator. This inverse is decomposed into a sum of partial fractions, which are used to obtain impulse response operators formed by non-causal filters that complex-conjugate symmetric coefficients. The time components are obtained by convolving the filters with the original signal, and the peak frequencies, corresponding to the poles of the prediction error operator, are used for mapping the time components into frequency components. For non-stationary signals, this decomposition is done in sliding time windows, and the signal component values,
in the middle of each window, are attributed to the peak value of its frequency response that corresponds to the pole of this partial fraction component. The result is an exact, but nonunique, time–frequency representation of the input signal. A sparse signal decomposition can be obtained by summing along the frequency axis in patches with similar characteristics in the time–frequency domain. The peak amplitude frequency of each new time component is obtained by computing a scalar prediction error operator in sliding time windows, resulting in a sparse time–frequency
representation. In both cases, the result is a time–frequency matrix where an estimate of the frequency content of the input signal can be obtained by summation over the time variable. The performance of the new method is
demonstrated with excellent results on a synthetic time signal, the LIGO gravitational wave signal and seismic field data.

Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

A combined method using singular spectrum analysis and instantaneous frequency for the ground-roll filtering
The noise attenuation is a fundamental step in seismic data processing, especially when ground-roll suppression remains a challenge. Rank-reduction methods have become quite popular in recent decades, as they promote significant improvements in the quality of data, highlighting reflections in seismograms. We present a methodology for ground-roll filtering, which combines the application of a recursive-iterative singular spectrum analysis method,
in the time domain, as a particular way to decompose seismic data, with the computation of the average instantaneous frequency of the signal components. This combination allows for a precise estimation and filtering of the ground-roll noise. The frequency values are used
for determining, in each component, the low-frequency parts associated with the ground roll. For every single component, the ground roll is attenuated by zeroing, and stacking the data components, where the average instantaneous frequency values match the ground-roll
bandwidth of frequency. Also, in order to enhance the lateral coherence of the reflectors,we present an extension of the recursive-iterative algorithm for a multichannel case. The multichannel algorithm is applicable on a shot, or common mid-point family of seismic traces, after the normal moveout correction. The numerical results using real data show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology for ground-roll attenuation and for improving the velocity analysis.

Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

Potencial de exploração de não-convencionais - Bahia.
A Bahia, com seu pioneirismo e história de sucesso
na produção comercial de petróleo na Bacia do
Recôncavo, possui significativo potencial exploratório. Embora as atividades de exploração e produção estejam em declínio, devido ao baixo fator
de recuperação de poços em campos produtores
e ao desinvestimento da Petrobras na exploração
em áreas terrestre, desperta interesse o potencial de gás associado aos folhelhos da Formação
Candeias, que são rochas geradora+reservatório
de gás, pois possuem valores elevados de carbono
orgânico total e maturação térmica adequada. A
localização privilegiada da Bacia do Recôncavo,
em relação aos centros consumidores, aumenta a
importância dos reservatórios de baixa permeabilidade no cenário de E&P do estado.
Neste capítulo, será apresentado o contexto
geológico das áreas terrestres potenciais para
exploração em reservatórios não convencionais,
com maior ênfase na Bacia do Recôncavo. Será
dado destaque, ainda, à importância e ao potencial dos dados geofísicos disponíveis no BDEP/
ANP20, às contribuições da UFBA na formação de
recursos humanos para a E&P e à importância do
reprocessamento de dados sísmicos e da interpretação sismoestratigráfica na investigação do
potencial de shale gas do Estado da Bahia.

Artigo em Revista
09/03/2022

Prestack seismic data reconstruction and denoising by orientation-dependent tensor decomposition
Multidimensional seismic data reconstruction and denoising can be achieved by assuming noiseless and complete data as low-rank matrices or tensors in the frequency-space domain. We have adopted a simple and effective approach to interpolate prestack seismic data that explores the low-rank property of multidimensional signals. The orientation-dependent tensor decomposition represents an alternative to
multilinear algebraic schemes. Our method does not need
to perform any explicit matricization, only requiring calculation of the so-called covariance matrix for one of the spatial dimensions. The elements of such a matrix are the inner products between the lower dimensional tensors in a convenient direction. The eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix provides the eigenvectors for the reduced-rank approximation of the data tensor. This approximation is used for recovery and denoising, iteratively replacing the missing values. Synthetic and field data examples illustrate the method’s effectiveness for denoising and interpolating 4D and 5D seismic data with randomly missing traces.

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