Produção Científica
Material Didático
Dynamics of Underground Rocks Containing Fluids This is the fourth book partially supported by the National Institute of Science and Technology of Petroleum Geophysics (INCTGP). The INCTGP started in July, 2008, and it is one of 122 projects created by CNPq, as part of the National Institutes of Science and Technology (INCT) Program, with nancial support from CNPq/MCT, PETROBRAS and the Coordination for Development of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES/MEC). The INCTGP joins together professors and researchers from 5 Brazilian universities (UFBA, UFPA, UFRN, UNICAMP and UENF) that work in the research and training of human resources in the areas of geophysics, geology and engineering applied to oil and gas exploration and reservoir studies. The book is intended for students, teachers and researchers in the areas of geophysics, that apply seismic methods in exploration, mainly for oil and gas exploration. It comprises of 4 chapters and an extraordinary bibliography. The book presents theoretical and practical aspects of the physics of wave propagation in porous and crack media. At the end of each chapter, there is a summary of the theory and applications. The text and illustrations reect the academic experience of the authors in a benecial international cooperation centered at the Federal University of Para, Belem, and the Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk. We would like to acknowledge to those people that have direct or indirect helped for the accomplishment of this book. Prof. Dr. Milton JosÃ© Porsani Coordinator of INCTGP Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. March, 2020 

Artigo em Revista
Can euler deconvolution outline threeâ€dimensional magnetic sources? Severe limitations of the standard Euler deconvolution (ED) to outline source shapes have been pointed out. However, ED has been widely employed on field data to outline interfaces, as faults and thrust zones. We investigate the limitations of the 3D EDâ€derived estimates of source dip and volume with the use of reducedâ€toâ€theâ€pole synthetic and field anomalies. The synthetic anomalies are generated by two types of source bodies: 1) uniformly magnetized prisms, presenting either smooth or rough interfaces, and 2) bodies presenting smooth delimiting interfaces but strong internal variation of magnetization intensity. The dip of the first type of body might be estimated from the ED solution cluster if the ratio between the depth to the top and vertical extent is relatively high (>1/4). For the second type of body, besides dip, the source volume can be approximately delimited from the solution cluster envelope, regardless of the referred ratio. We apply ED to two field anomalies which are caused by a curvedâ€shape thrust zone and by a banded iron formation. These anomalies are chosen because they share characteristics with the two types of synthetic bodies. For the thrust zone, the obtained ED solutions show spatial distribution allowing to estimate a source dip that is consistent with the surface geology data, even if the above mentioned ratio is much less than 1/4. Thus, there are other factors, like a heterogeneous magnetization, which might be controlling the vertical spreading of the ED solutions in the thrust zone. On the other hand, for the ironâ€ore formation, the solution cluster spreads out occupying a volume, in accordance with the results obtained with the synthetic sources having internal variation of magnetization intensity. As conclusion, although EDâ€derived solutions cannot offer accurate estimates of source shapes, they might provide a sufficient degree of reliability in the initial estimates of the source dip and volume, which may be useful in a later phase of more accurate modeling. 
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Enhancing stratigraphic, structural and dissolution features in GPR images of carbonate karst through data processing Obtaining highâ€quality ground penetrating radar (GPR) images in karst is difficult because materials resulting from the weathering of carbonate rocks might be electrically conductive. As a consequence, penetration depth and signal resolution might be greatly reduced due to attenuation. In addition, fractures and faults might cause a significant amount of electromagnetic wave scattering. We present a 2D data processing flow which allows improving the quality of GPR images in carbonate karst. The processing flow is composed of the following steps: obtaining a zeroâ€offset section by removing the direct wave, lowâ€frequency noise removal, geometrical spreading and exponential gain compensation, spectral balancing, Kirchhoff migration, bandpass filtering, amplitudeâ€volume enhancement, and topographic correction. For a 200â€MHz dataset, we present in detail each step of the processing flow, exemplifying how to parameterize every step. Spectral balancing is of key importance because it can approximately replenish the highâ€frequency content lost due to propagation effects. In this step, we recommend to shift the centroid frequency as much as possible to highâ€frequency values, even exceeding the nominal value of the antenna center frequency, but still looking for a bandâ€limited spectrum as the goal. Despite the difficulty of migrating GPR data, we show that migration (even assuming a constant velocity) might enhance the lateral continuity of the reflection events and allows identification of discontinuities such as faults and fractures. If imaged in a better way, these structures can have special importance as they are often the boundaries of dissolution features. Obtaining images based on amplitudeâ€volume enhancement techniques allows to better visualize karst voids and deepâ€rooted discontinuities because these features are often associated with lowâ€amplitude zones, which are highlighted in such images. Due to this processing flow, stratigraphic, structural and dissolution features can be enhanced, allowing the interpreter to establish spatial and genetic associations among these elements to obtain a better understanding of the karst formation process. 
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Estimation of the seismic wavelet through homomorphic deconvolution and well log data: application on welltoseismic tie procedure Wavelet estimation and welltie procedures are important tasks in seismic processing and interpretation. Deconvolutional statistical methods to estimate the proper wavelet, in general, are based on the assumptions of the classical convolutional model, which implies a random process reflectivity and a minimumphase wavelet. The homomorphic deconvolution, however, does not take these premises into account. In this work, we propose an approach to estimate the seismic wavelet using the advantages of the homomorphic deconvolution and the deterministic estimation of the wavelet, which uses both seismic and well log data. The feasibility of this approach is verified on welltoseismic tie from a real data set from Viking Graben Field, North Sea, Norway. The results show that the wavelet estimated through this methodology produced a higher quality well tie when compared to methods of estimation of the wavelet that consider the classical assumptions of the convolutional model. 
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Fast estimation of prestack Common Reflection Surface parameters. We present a method for fast estimation of finite offset common reflection surface parameters. Firstly, the derivatives with respect to offset are derived from the velocity guide. Secondly, we apply structure tensors to extract the derivatives with respect to midpoint from stacked common offset sections. Finally, the mixed derivative is estimated using a oneâ€parametric semblance search. The proposed method is compared to the global fiveâ€parametric semblance search and the pragmatic sequential twoâ€parametric semblance search on one synthetic and one real data set. The experiments show that the proposed method is more robust against noise than the pragmatic search and have comparable robustness with the global search. The proposed method smoothes parameter estimates in a local window, and the window size is set to give the best tradeâ€off between detail and robustness. Since the proposed method is dependent on a velocity guide, the quality of the other parameter estimates may be influenced by any inaccuracies in the guide. The main advantage of the proposed method is the computational efficiency. When compared with a gridded implementation of the semblance search, the proposed method is 10 and 400 times faster than the pragmatic and global search. Alternative search strategies significantly reduce the computational cost of the global search. However, since more than 99% of the computational cost of the proposed method comes from the semblance search to estimate the mixed derivative, it is expected that such techniques also reduce the computational cost for the proposed method. 
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Stretchfree generalized normal moveout correction. The effective application of normal moveout correction processes mainly depends on four factors: the chosen traveltime approximation, the stretching associated with the given traveltime, crossing events and phase changes, the last two being inherent to the seismic data. In this context, we conduct a quantitative analysis on stretching considering a general traveltime expression depending on halfâ€offset and midpoint coordinates. Through this analysis, we propose a mathematically proven procedure to eliminate stretching, which can be applied to any traveltime approximation. The proposed method is applied to synthetic and real data sets, considering different traveltime approximations and achieved complete elimination of stretching. 
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Gravity and Magnetic Modeling Sergipano Belt, Brazil: Tectonic Control and Crustal Thickness of the Basement Adjacent to the SergipeAlagoas Basin This work used gravimetric and magnetic data to investigate the Sergipano Belt that occupies the Southern Borborema Province, Brazil. The main objective was to interpret tectonic relationships between the geological domains, crustal lateral variation of the physical properties and the behavior of the Moho relief. The gravity and magnetic inversion was performed to determine the physical properties magnetic susceptibility and density contrast to delineate the geometry of the true source. The regional gravity anomaly was used to obtain solutions depth of the interface crustmantle in which it was necessary to know the initial model of the crustal thickness and density contrast. The geophysical measures was used to delineate the initially crustal thickness and compared to the results based on a compilation of data published in the literature mainly derived from seismic database such as deep seismic refraction experiments. These magnetic sources have signals with different amplitudes that originate from different geometric sources, situated at different depths and with different magnetic properties. As to the crustal thickness results, we found that the southern region of the Sergipano Belt has a crustal (3435 km) and mantle uplift, mainly in the Girau do Ponciano Dome. The Rio Coruripe domain as well as the PEAL Terrain has a thicker crust (3840 km), with magnetic and gravimetric sources that reach from 15 to 20 km deep marked in sections. 
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Density log correction for borehole effects and its impact on welltoseismic tie: Application on a North Sea data set Reservoir characterization requires accurate elastic logs. It is necessary to guarantee that the logging tool is stable during the drilling process to avoid compromising the measurements of the physical properties in the formation in the vicinity of the well. Irregularities along the borehole may happen, especially if the drilling device is passing through unconsolidated formations. This affects the signals recorded by the logging tool, and the measurements may be more impacted by the drilling mud than by the formation. The caliper log indicates the change in the diameter of the borehole with depth and can be used as an indicator of the quality of other logs whose data have been degraded by the enlargement or shrinkage of the borehole wall. Damaged welllog data, particularly density and velocity profiles, affect the quality and accuracy of the welltoseismic tie. To investigate the effects of borehole enlargement on the welltoseismic tie, an analysis of density log correction was performed. This approach uses Dollâ€™s geometric factor to correct the density log for wellbore enlargement using the caliper readings. Because the wavelet is an important factor on the well tie, we tested our methodology with statistical and deterministic wavelet estimations. For both cases, the results using the real data set from the Viking Graben field â€” North Sea indicated up to a 7% improvement on the correlation between the real and synthetic seismic traces for welltoseismic tie when the density correction was made. 
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Analysis of EshelbyChengâ€™s model in anisotropic porous cracked medium: An ultrasonic physical modeling approach Many effective medium theories are designed to describe the macroscopic properties of a medium (the rock, or reservoir in this case) in terms of the properties of its constituents (the background matrix of the rock and the inclusions, for our scenario). A very well known effective medium theory is the EshelbyCheng model, which was studied by us in previous work, being tested for the case where the background medium was weaklyanisotropic and porous. The analysis was done testing elastic velocities and Thomsen parameters  as a function of crack density for fixed values of aspect ratio  predicted by the model with data acquired from synthetic rock samples. In this work, we aim to complete the analysis of the EshelbyCheng model capabilities when applied to rocks with porous and vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) backgrounds, testing the model for the elastic velocities as functions of aspect ratio  for fixed values of crack density  against experimental data. The data used to test the model were obtained from 17 synthetic rock samples, one uncracked and 16 cracked, the latter divided into four groups of four samples each, each group with cracks having the same aspect ratio, but with the samples having different crack densities. In these samples, ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements were performed to obtain the experimental velocities used to test the model. As was not possible to acquire data for velocity as a function of aspect ratio for fixed values of crack density, we performed interpolations of the experimental data to estimate these velocities. EshelbyCheng model effective velocities and Thomsen parameters were calculated using three formulations proposed for the crack porosity: one proposed by Thomsen, the second one proposed in our previous work (which depends only on the crack density) and the third one proposed in this work (which depends on the crack porosity and the aspect ratio, just like Thomsenâ€™s proposal). The comparisons between elastic velocities and Thomsen parameters  as function of crack aspect ratio, for fixed values of crack density  predicted by the model and estimated from the data via interpolation showed that the third formulation produced better fittings (lower rootmeansquare errors) between model and experimental data for all ranges of aspect ratio and crack density. 
Artigo em Revista
Tectonic Control and Crustal Thickness of the Basement Adjacent to the SergipeAlagoas Basin This work used gravimetric and magnetic data to investigate the Sergipano Belt that occupies the Southern Borborema Province, Brazil. The main objective was to interpret tectonic relationships between the geological domains, crustal lateral variation of the physical properties and the behavior of the Moho relief. The gravity and magnetic inversion was performed to determine the physical properties magnetic susceptibility and density contrast to delineate the geometry of the true source. The regional gravity anomaly was used to obtain solutions depth of the interface crustmantle in which it was necessary to know the initial model of the crustal thickness and density contrast. The geophysical measures was used to delineate the initially crustal thickness and compared to the results based on a compilation of data published in the literature mainly derived from seismic database such as deep seismic refraction experiments. These magnetic sources have signals with different amplitudes that originate from different geometric sources, situated at different depths and with different magnetic properties. As to the crustal thickness results, we found that the southern region of the Sergipano Belt has a crustal (3435 km) and mantle uplift, mainly in the Girau do Ponciano Dome. The Rio Coruripe domain as well as the PEAL Terrain has a thicker crust (3840 km), with magnetic and gravimetric sources that reach from 15 to 20 km deep marked in sections. 
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